Welfare Reform & Lone Mothers' Employment The 1990s in the US saw the devolution of much of welfare policy to State level, the introduction of work requirements for welfare recipients, increased childcare provision and a rise in the Earned Income Tax Credit. These reforms were introduced to move lone mothers into work - by mandating work, making work pay and helping with childcare - and the evidence presented here suggests that they did just that. Between 1994 and 1995 the numbers of people on welfare fell by half from 5million to 2.5 million. Over the same period labour force participation of lone mothers increased by 10%. Analysis suggests that this was due to a combination of two factors - the welfare reforms and the strong US economy. By Jane Waldfogel, Sandra K. Danziger, Sheldon Danziger and Kristin Seefeldt of the UK based Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion. Also worth viewing is the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project, which, amongst other things, tests the impact of lone parents' moves into work on child poverty. " is published by the Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion
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Universal Unified Child Credit A proposal from the Economic Policy Institute to integrate the Earned Income Tax Credit with other US tax benefits and allowances. Detailed but concise, this paper addresses issues such as the high marginal tax rates, the marriage penalty and the complexity of application associated with the EITC. By Robert Cherry and Max B. Sawicky." is published by the Economic Policy Institute
By Economic Policy Institute ,US
Dynamics of Child Poverty in UK and Germany . Britain has a higher proportion of children living in low income families than Germany. However this may not be so important if analysis of poverty dynamics shows that families move out of poverty easily or dip into poverty only momentarily. However, The Dynamics of Child Poverty: Britain and Germany Compared demonstrates that, compared to Germany, in Britain poor children are more likely to remain poor and to remain so for longer periods of time. By Stephen P. Jenkins, Christian Schluter and Gert G. Wagner.
By Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung ,Germany & UK.
Mothers' employment and childcare use. This presentation reveals that mothers still face substantial hurdles in undertaking paid employment. For those who do manage to work, childcare arrangements are a diverse mixture of carers, cost and quality. Government initiatives to increase the availability of childcare places have a substantial shortfall to address while measures to increase the "affordability" of care, such as the Working Families Tax Credit, may have limited impact on the work choices of mothers.
By Institute for Fiscal Research, UK.